Standard 10 paper style according to the new modal considering the situation of Corona Gujarati 2020-2021

Standard 10 paper style according to the new modal considering the situation of Corona Gujarati 2020-2021



The other dimension of the style box has to do with the size of the companies that a mutual fund invests in. Large-cap companies have high market capitalizations, with values over $10 billion. Market cap is derived by multiplying the share price by the number of shares outstanding. Large-cap stocks are typically blue chip firms that are often recognizable by name. Small-cap stocks refer to those stocks with a market cap ranging from $300 million to $2 billion. These smaller companies tend to be newer, riskier investments. Mid-cap stocks fill in the gap between small- and large-cap.


A mutual fund may blend its strategy between investment style and company size. For example, a large-cap value fund would look to large-cap companies that are in strong financial shape but have recently seen their share prices fall and would be placed in the upper left quadrant of the style box (large and value). The opposite of this would be a fund that invests in startup technology companies with excellent growth prospects: small-cap growth. Such a mutual fund would reside in the bottom right quadrant (small and growth).


Fixed-Income Funds


Another big group is the fixed income category. A fixed-income mutual fund focuses on investments that pay a set rate of return, such as government bonds, corporate bonds, or other debt instruments. The idea is that the fund portfolio generates interest income, which it then passes on to the shareholders.


Sometimes referred to as bond funds, these funds are often actively managed and seek to buy relatively undervalued bonds in order to sell them at a profit. These mutual funds are likely to pay higher returns than certificates of deposit and money market investments, but bond funds aren't without risk. Because there are many different types of bonds, bond funds can vary dramatically depending on where they invest. For example, a fund specializing in high-yield junk bonds is much riskier than a fund that invests in government securities. Furthermore, nearly all bond funds are subject to interest rate risk, which means that if rates go up, the value of the fund goes down.


Index Funds


Another group, which has become extremely popular in the last few years, falls under the moniker "index funds." Their investment strategy is based on the belief that it is very hard, and often expensive, to try to beat the market consistently. So, the index fund manager buys stocks that correspond with a major market index such as the S&P 500 or the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA). This strategy requires less research from analysts and advisors, so there are fewer expenses to eat up returns before they are passed on to shareholders. These funds are often designed with cost-sensitive investors in mind.


Balanced Funds


Balanced funds invest in a hybrid of asset classes, whether stocks, bonds, money market instruments, or alternative investments. The objective is to reduce the risk of exposure across asset classes.This kind of fund is also known as an asset allocation fund. There are two variations of such funds designed to cater to the investors objectives.


Some funds are defined with a specific allocation strategy that is fixed, so the investor can have a predictable exposure to various asset classes. Other funds follow a strategy for dynamic allocation percentages to meet various investor objectives. This may include responding to market conditions, business cycle changes, or the changing phases of the investor's own life.


While the objectives are similar to those of a balanced fund, dynamic allocation funds do not have to hold a specified percentage of any asset class. The portfolio manager is therefore given freedom to switch the ratio of asset classes as needed to maintain the integrity of the fund's stated strategy.


Money Market Funds


The money market consists of safe (risk-free), short-term debt instruments, mostly government Treasury bills. This is a safe place to park your money. You won't get substantial returns, but you won't have to worry about losing your principal. A typical return is a little more than the amount you would earn in a regular checking or savings account and a little less than the average certificate of deposit (CD). While money market funds invest in ultra-safe assets, during the 2008 financial crisis, some money market funds did experience losses after the share price of these funds, typically pegged at $1, fell below that level and broke the buck.


Income Funds


Income funds are named for their purpose: to provide current income on a steady basis. These funds invest primarily in government and high-quality corporate debt, holding these bonds until maturity in order to provide interest streams. While fund holdings may appreciate in value, the primary objective of these funds is to provide steady cash flow​ to investors. As such, the audience for these funds consists of conservative investors and retirees. Because they produce regular income, tax-conscious investors may want to avoid these funds.


International/Global Funds


An international fund (or foreign fund) invests only in assets located outside your home country. Global funds, meanwhile, can invest anywhere around the world, including within your home country. It's tough to classify these funds as either riskier or safer than domestic investments, but they have tended to be more volatile and have unique country and political risks. On the flip side, they can, as part of a well-balanced portfolio, actually reduce risk by increasing diversification, since the returns in foreign countries may be uncorrelated with returns at home. Although the world's economies are becoming more interrelated, it is still likely that another economy somewhere is outperforming the economy of your home country.


Specialty Funds


This classification of mutual funds is more of an all-encompassing category that consists of funds that have proved to be popular but don't necessarily belong to the more rigid categories we've described so far. These types of mutual funds forgo broad diversification to concentrate on a certain segment of the economy or a targeted strategy. Sector funds are targeted strategy funds aimed at specific sectors of the economy, such as financial, technology, health, and so on. Sector funds can, therefore, be extremely volatile since the stocks in a given sector tend to be highly correlated with each other. There is a greater possibility for large gains, but a sector may also collapse (for example, the financial sector in 2008 and 2009).


Regional funds make it easier to focus on a specific geographic area of the world. This can mean focusing on a broader region (say Latin America) or an individual country (for example, only Brazil). An advantage of these funds is that they make it easier to buy stock in foreign countries, which can otherwise be difficult and expensive. Just like for sector funds, you have to accept the high risk of loss, which occurs if the region goes into a bad recession.


Socially responsible funds (or ethical funds) invest only in companies that meet the criteria of certain guidelines or beliefs. For example, some socially responsible funds do not invest in "sin" industries such as tobacco, alcoholic beverages, weapons, or nuclear power. The idea is to get competitive performance while still maintaining a healthy conscience. Other such funds invest primarily in green technology, such as solar and wind power or recycling.


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